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April, 2014

Are Real Devaluations Contractionary? Introduction

The literature provides a rich debate of individual countries (See, Branson, 1986; Ghura and Thomas, 1993; Kamin and Rogers, 2000; Berument and Pasaogullari, 2003) and cross countries analysis on the relationship between the real exchange rate and output level with …Continue reading →

THE ROLE OF CULTURE ON ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN SAUDI ARABIA: Discussion

In order to thrive in economic development, particularly in entrepreneurship innovation, Saudi Arabia needs to unlock its door to accept changes and to transform. This transformation should not change the traditions of the country, but it should allow for more …Continue reading →

THE ROLE OF CULTURE ON ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN SAUDI ARABIA: Entrepreneurial Cultural Dimensions

Previous researchers suggested ideal scores of cultural dimensions that facilitate entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurial behavior should involve high individualism and low in power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity values and long-term orientation. In Saudi Arabia, as reported by Cassell and Blake, the cultural …Continue reading →

THE ROLE OF CULTURE ON ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN SAUDI ARABIA: INFLUENCE ON ENTREPRENEURIAL CULTURE

In other words, individuals with more power is privileged with more advantage and benefit compared to individuals with less power. Study by van Evergingen and Waarts suggested that in high power distance culture, the spread of information can be limited …Continue reading →

THE ROLE OF CULTURE ON ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN SAUDI ARABIA: HOFSTEDE’S CULTURAL DIMENSIONS

The Hofstede’s model has proposed five different criteria for describing national cultures. Those criteria are called dimensions and they are largely independent of each other. The cultural dimensions are: •    Individualism versus collectivism •    Power distance •    Uncertainty avoidance •    …Continue reading →

THE ROLE OF CULTURE ON ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN SAUDI ARABIA: CULTURAL INFLUENCE

Batonda and Perry suggested that although culture is an important element of international marketing, it is also a key determinant of the success of entrepreneurial development in Saudi Arabia. Many studies conducted earlier have developed different opinions and definitions of …Continue reading →

THE ROLE OF CULTURE ON ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN SAUDI ARABIA: ENTREPRENEURSHIP

EXPATRIATES, UNEMPLOYMENT AND “SAUDIZATION” IN SAUDI ARABIA The increasing number of unemployment among Saudis is one of the current concerns of the government. As observed by Gardner who cited Dr. Abdul Hafeez Shaikh, an officer from the World’s Bank in …Continue reading →

THE ROLE OF CULTURE ON ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN SAUDI ARABIA: INTRODUCTION

Saudi Arabia is the largest Muslim country that is governed by the Islamic law principles known as Shari’ah. Ford revealed that there are 85 percent Sunni Muslims and about 15 percent Shi’a Muslims among Saudis in the kingdom. As the …Continue reading →